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An empty interface is known as tag or marker interface.

For example Serializable, EventListener are tag interfaces

This is how a tag interface looks:

package java.util;

public interface EventListener

{ }

These interfaces do not have any field and methods in it. So now you may be thinking that if they are empty why does a class implement them?

What’s is the purpose of using it?

Class implements them to claim the membership in a particular set.

For example: If a class implements Serializable interface, it is claiming to be the member of Serializable classes, so if JVM (Java Virtual Machine) sees that a class is Serializable, it does some trick or special operation that helps in the serialization/de-serialization process

> An empty interface is known as tag or marker interface. > For example Serializable, EventListener are tag interfaces > This is how a tag interface looks: > package java.util; > public interface EventListener > { } > These interfaces do not have any field and methods in it. So now you may be thinking that if they are empty why does a class implement them? > What’s is the purpose of using it? > Class implements them to claim the membership in a particular set. > For example: If a class implements Serializable interface, it is claiming to be the member of Serializable classes, so if JVM (Java Virtual Machine) sees that a class is Serializable, it does some trick or special operation that helps in the serialization/de-serialization process Nice one Aviet! Also, Spring make heavy use of marker interfaces, like in repositories and test slices.

In Japanese horror movies, you have that creepy ghost kid, making your life miserable.

Mocks can be like that, especially in Spring. See, if you supply a mock as a bean in Spring, it doesn't die between tests. Oh, no. It lives on, like that creepy kid.

There a couple of ways to handle that. Like resetting the mock. Or using Spring Boot's @MockBean. But like in those movies, you need to understand why those damn things keep coming back.

Wanna be a mockbuster? I'm talking about it in my "Introduction to Testing With Spring" course https://www.eventbrite.com/e/testing-with-spring-introduction-tickets-102081654978

Now pay for one Testing Spring course and get the 2nd FREE OF CHARGE #Testing_REST_APIs with #Spring

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Protractor is an end-to-end test framework for Angular and AngularJS applications. Protractor runs tests against your application running in a real browser, interacting with it as a user would.

Test Like a User

Protractor is built on top of WebDriverJS, which uses native events and browser-specific drivers to interact with your application as a user would.

For Angular Apps

Protractor supports Angular-specific locator strategies, which allows you to test Angular-specific elements without any setup effort on your part.

Automatic Waiting

You no longer need to add waits and sleeps to your test. Protractor can automatically execute the next step in your test the moment the webpage finishes pending tasks, so you don’t have to worry about waiting for your test and webpage to sync.

Typescript or JavaScript

You can code either using JavaScript or typescript. It is better to start with typescript however as it provides many more object oriented features

Jasmine or Chai framework

Either of them can be used for the purpose of assertions and data provider features

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